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br Brasil

Forbundsrepublikken Brasil er Sør-Amerikas største stat, og den femte største i verden, både i folketall og i areal. Det er det eneste amerikanske landet hvor portugisisk er offisielt språk, og det største lusofone landet i verden.

Brasil var en portugisisk koloni fra Pedro Alvares Cabrals ankomst i 1500 fram til 1815, da landet fikk status som kongedømme og Det forente kongerike Portugal, Brasil og Algarve ble dannet. Den koloniale båndet ble i realiteten brutt i 1808, da hovedstaden i det portugisiske koloniimperiet ble overført fra Lisboa til Rio de Janeiro etter Napoleons invasjon av Portugal. Uavhengigheten ble oppnådd i 1822 ved dannelsen av keiserdømmet Brasil, en enhetsstat styrt som et konstitusjonelt monark imed et parlamentarisk system. Landet ble republikk i 1889 da et militært statskupp proklamerte republikk, selv omtokammersystemet, som i dag heter Kongressen, dateres tilbake til ratifiseringen av den første grunnloven i 1824. Den nåværende grunnloven, utformet i 1988, definerer Brasil som en forbundsrepublikk. Forbundet er dannet av de et føderalt distrikt og 26 delstater.

Brasils økonomi er verdens sjette største etter nominell BNP og syvende største etter kjøpekraft (pr. 2011). Brasil er en av verdens raskest voksende store økonomier og økonomiske reformer har gitt landet ny internasjonal anerkjennelse. Brasil er en av grunnleggerne av FN, G20, CPLP, Den latinske union, Organisasjonen av ibero-amerikanske stater, Organisasjonen av amerikanske stater, Mercosul og De søramerikanske lands union, og er også et av BRIClandene.

Karnevalet samt musikk- og dansestiler som blant annet samba, bossa nova og forró er noen av de mest kjente delene av Brasils kulturliv. Innenfor sport har landet sikret seg fem verdensmesterskapstitler i fotball. Kampsporten capoeira stammer også fra Brasil. Innenfor litteratur er kanskje Paulo Coelho den mest kjente, mens Oscar Niemeyer er en internasjonalt anerkjent arkitekt.

Klimaet i Brasil omfatter et bredt spekter av værforhold over et stort område med en variert topografi, men mesteparten av landet er tropisk. Ifølge Köppens klimaklassifisering dekker Brasil fem store klimatiske subtyper:tropisk regnskogklima, tropisk, halvtørt klima, highland tropisk, temperert klima og subtropisk klima. De ulike klimatiske forholdene produserer miljøer som spenner fra ekvatoriale regnskoger i nord og halvtørre ørkener i nordøst, til temperert barskog i sør og tropiske savanner i det sentrale Brasil. Mange regioner har tydelig ulike mikroklima.

Selv om det meste av Brasil ligger i tropene, bor mer enn 60 prosent av befolkningen i områder som er kjøligere, enten på grunn av høyde, vind fra havet eller polare fronter. Mens de kystnære byene Rio de Janeiro, Recife og Salvador kan bli ekstremt varme, kan byer på platået, som São Paulo, Brasília og Belo Horizonte ha mildere klima, og de sørlige byene Porto Alegre og Curitiba har milde vintre.

Brasils mest intense regn faller rundt munningen av Amazonas nær byen Belém, og også i de øvre delene av Amazonas, der mer enn 2000 millimeter regn faller hvert år. Mesteparten av Brasil har moderate nedbørsmengder på mellom 1000 og 1500 millimeter i året, det meste av dette kommer mellom desember og april. Den tørreste delen av landet er i nordøst, der nedbøren er uberegnelig og fordampningshastigheten meget høy, noe som gjør det vanskelig å dyrke avlinger.

Utdannelse

education

Education in Brazil is regulated by the Cabinet of Brazil, through the Ministry of Education, which defines the guiding principles for the organization of education programs. Local governments are responsible for establishing state and education programs following the guidelines and using the funding supplied by the federal government.

The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Federal Government, States, Federal District and municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. The constitution reserves 25% of the state budget and 18% of federal taxes and municipal taxes for education.

According to the IBGE, in 2011, the literacy rate of the population was 90.4%, meaning that 13 million (9.6% of population) people are still illiterate in the country; functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population. Illiteracy is highest in the Northeast, where 19.9% of the population is illiterate.

Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers. Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense. To attend a higher education institution is required, by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education, completing all levels of education suited to the needs of all students of teaching kindergarten, elementary and medium, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing.

Mat

food

Brazilian cuisine has European, African and Amerindian influences. It varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations, and its continental size as well. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.

Ingredients first used by native peoples in Brazil include cassava, guaraná, açaí, cumaru, cashew and tucupi. From there, the many waves of immigrants brought some of their typical dishes, replacing missing ingredients with local equivalents. For instance, the European immigrants (primarily from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Germany, Poland and Switzerland) were accustomed to a wheat-based diet, and introduced wine, leaf vegetables, and dairy products into Brazilian cuisine. When potatoes were not available they discovered how to use the native sweet manioc as a replacement. The African slaves also had a role in developing Brazilian cuisine, especially in the coastal states. The foreign influence extended to later migratory waves - Japanese immigrants brought most of the food items that Brazilians would associate with Asian cuisine today, and introduced large-scale aviaries, well into the 20th century.

Root vegetables such as cassava (locally known as mandioca, aipim or macaxeira, among other names), yams, and fruit like açaí,cupuaçu, mango, papaya, guava, orange, passion fruit, pineapple, and hog plum are among the local ingredients used in cooking. Some typical dishes are feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as vatapá, moqueca, polenta and acarajé. There is also caruru, which consists of okra, onion, dried shrimp, and toasted nuts (peanuts or cashews), cooked with palm oil until a spread-like consistency is reached; moqueca capixaba, consisting of slow-cooked fish, tomato, onion and garlic, topped with cilantro; and linguiça, a mildly spicy sausage.

The national beverage is coffee, while cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, caipirinha. Cheese buns (pães-de-queijo), and salgadinhos such as pastéis, coxinhas, risólis (from pierogy of Polish cuisine) and kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine) are common finger food items, while cuscuz branco (milled tapioca) is a popular dessert.

An average meal consists mostly of rice and beans with beef and salad. Often, it's mixed with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants. Popular snacks are pastel (a pastry); coxinha (chicken croquete); pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca); pamonha (corn and milk paste); esfirra (Lebanese pastry); kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine); empanada (pastry) and empada, little salt pies filled with shrimps or heart of palm.

Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada). Peanuts are used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew,guava, orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.

Språk

language

The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes.

Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Northern regions, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia), with a few influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu restricted to the vocabulary only. As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, partly because of the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connexion to contemporary European Portuguese). These differences are comparable to those between American and British English.Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.

In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January 2009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a 6-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables.

Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants. In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Nheengatu (a currently endangered South American creole language – or an 'anti-creole', according to some linguists – with mostly Indigenous Brazilian languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that, together with its southern relative língua geral paulista, once was a major lingua franca in Brazil, being replaced by Portuguese only after governmental prohibition led by major political changes), Baniwa and Tucano languages had been granted co-official status with Portuguese.

There are significant communities of German (mostly the Brazilian Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian, a Venetian dialect) origins in the Southern and Southeastern regions, whose ancestors' native languages were carried along to Brazil, and which, still alive there, are influenced by the Portuguese language. Talian is officially a historic patrimony of Rio Grande do Sul, and two German dialects possess co-official status in a few municipalities.

Learning at least one second language (generally English or Spanish) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system (primary and secondary education, there called ensino fundamental and ensino médio respectively). Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to secondary students.