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be 比利时

比利時王國 是一個西歐國家。它是歐洲聯盟的創始會員國之一,首都布魯塞爾是歐盟與北大西洋公約組織等大型國際組織的總部所在地。比利時自北起順時針分別與荷蘭、德國、盧森堡和法國接壤,西面則濱臨北海。

比利時是很多法國作家的安樂窩,如維克多·雨果、大仲馬等。比利時也是畫家的天堂,弗萊芒畫派是17世紀最重要的畫派。

属温帶海洋性气候,冬季溫和、夏季涼爽、多雨,1月平均氣溫0-3 °C,7月平均氣溫14-19 °C;年降水量700-900毫米,高地达。

比利時人酷愛薯條,一般在各個小店或火車站都可以買到小包裝的炸馬鈴薯,當地人叫做frieten(荷蘭語)或frites(法語,但是與法國人的叫法不同)。比利時人也酷愛喝啤酒,世界上最大的啤酒廠就在比利時。做甜點(Goffres)是比利時人的特長。比利時巧克力和瑞士巧克力聞名於世,手工製作的餅乾、蛋糕等也非常有名。

教育

education

Education in Belgium is regulated and for the larger part financed by one of the three communities: Flemish, French and German-speaking. All three communities have a unified school system with small differences from one community to another. The federal government plays a very small role: it decides directly the age for mandatory schooling and indirectly the financing of the communities.

The schools can be divided in three groups (Dutch: netten; French: réseaux):

1. Schools owned by the communities (GO! Onderwijs van de Vlaamse gemeenschap; réseau de la Communauté française)

2. Subsidized public schools (officieel gesubsidieerd onderwijs; réseau officiel subventionné), organized by provinces and municipalities

3. Subsidized free schools (vrij gesubsidieerd onderwijs; réseau libre subventionné), mainly organized by an organization affiliated to the Catholic churchThe latter is the largest group, both in number of schools and in number of pupils.

Education is compulsory from 6 to 18 years of age for Belgians. Among OECD countries in 2002, Belgium had the third highest proportion of 18- to 21-year-olds enrolled in postsecondary education, at 42%. Though an estimated 99% of the adult population is literate, concern is rising over functional illiteracy. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Belgium's education as the 19th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average. Education being organized separately by each, the Flemish Community scores noticeably above the French and German-speaking Communities.

Mirroring the dual structure of the 19th-century Belgian political landscape, characterized by the Liberal and the Catholic parties, the educational system is segregated within a secular and a religious segment. The secular branch of schooling is controlled by the communities, the provinces, or the municipalities, while religious, mainly Catholic branch education, is organized by religious authorities, although subsidized and supervised by the communities.

食品

food

Belgian cuisine is widely varied with significant regional variations while also reflecting the cuisines of neighbouring France, Germany and the Netherlands. It is sometimes said that Belgian food is served in the quantity of German cuisine but with the quality of French food. Outside the country, Belgium is best known for its chocolate, waffles, fries and beer.

Though Belgium has many distinctive national dishes, many internationally-popular foods like hamburgers and spaghetti bolognese are also popular in Belgium, and most of what Belgians eat is also eaten in neighbouring countries. 'Belgian cuisine' therefore usually refers to dishes of Belgian origin, or those considered typically Belgian.

Belgian cuisine traditionally prizes regional and seasonal ingredients. Ingredients typical in Belgian dishes include potatoes, leeks, grey shrimp, white asparagus, Belgian endives and local beer, in addition to common European staples including meat, cheese and butter. Belgians typically eat three meals a day, with a light breakfast, light or medium-sized lunch and large dinner.Belgium has a plethora of dishes and products that are local to a specific area. Examples include waterzooi from Ghent, the couque biscuit from the town of Dinant, and tarte au riz from Verviers. While their local origins are acknowledged, most such dishes are enjoyed throughout Belgium.

Many highly ranked Belgian restaurants can be found in the most influential restaurant guides, such as the Michelin Guide. Belgium is famous for beer, chocolate, waffles and french fries with mayonnaise. Contrary to their name, french fries are claimed to have originated in Belgium, although their exact place of origin is uncertain. The national dishes are "steak and fries with salad", and "mussels with fries".

Brands of Belgian chocolate and pralines, like Côte d'Or, Neuhaus, Leonidas and Godiva are famous, as well as independent producers such as Burie and Del Rey in Antwerp and Mary's in Brussels. Belgium produces over 1100 varieties of beer. The Trappist beer of the Abbey of Westvleteren has repeatedly been rated the world's best beer. The biggest brewer in the world by volume is Anheuser-Busch InBev, based in Leuven.

语言

language

由於比利時處於歐洲日爾曼語族與拉丁語族的分界線上,因此比利時國內兩種語言並存。其中説荷蘭語的主要集中於比利时北部的弗拉芒大區,約占全國總人口的59%,説法語的則主要位於南部瓦隆大區和布魯塞爾首都大區,約占全國總人口的41%。另外在瓦隆大區還有一小部分受官方承認的德語族群。比利時政府將這三種語言均設為官方語言。

比利時人所使用的荷兰语和法语都含有本国地方方言,但這些方言與荷蘭或法國使用的荷蘭語和法語差别甚微,與這兩國人交流没有障碍。

比利时分為荷兰語區與法語區,首都布魯塞爾为法语和荷兰语双语区,但法语在实际使用中占优势。