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mx 墨西哥

墨西哥合众国(西班牙语:Estados Unidos Mexicanos),简称墨西哥是北美洲的一個聯邦共和制國家,首都及最大城市是墨西哥城。它位于拉丁美洲最北部,北部与美国接壤,东南与危地马拉与伯利兹相邻,西部是太平洋,东部有墨西哥湾与加勒比海的阻隔。

面積達將近兩百萬平方千米,是美洲面積第五大的國家、也是世界上面積第十三大的國家。其人口約為1.13億,是世界第十一人口大國和人口最多的西班牙語國家,此外也是拉丁美洲第二人口大國。除去首都墨西哥城之外,墨西哥還有三十一個州。

教育

education

Education in Mexico has a long history. The Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico was founded by royal decree in 1551, a few months after the University of San Carlos in Lima. By comparison, Harvard College, the oldest in Anglo-America, was founded in 1636. Education in Mexico was until relatively recently largely confined to elite males and under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico.

The Mexican state has been directly involved in education since the nineteenth century, promoting secular education. Control of education was a source of ongoing conflict between the Mexican state and the Roman Catholic Church, which since the colonial era had exclusive charge of education. The mid nineteenth-century Liberal Reform separated church and state, which had a direct impact on education. President Benito Juárez sought the expansion of public schools. During the lengthy tenure of president Porfirio Díaz, the expansion of education became a priority under a cabinet-level post held by Justo Sierra; Sierra also served President Francisco I. Madero in the early years of the Mexican Revolution.

The 1917 Constitution strengthened the Mexican state's power in education, undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church to shape the educational development of Mexicans. During presidency of Álvaro Obregón in the early 1920s, his Minister of Public Education José Vasconcelos implemented a massive expansion of access to public, secular education. This work was built on and expanded in the administration of Plutarco Elías Calles by Moisés Sáenz. In the 1930s, the Mexican government under Lázaro Cárdenas mandated socialist education in Mexico and there was considerable push back from the Roman Catholic Church as an institution. Socialist education was repealed during the 1940s, with the administration of Manuel Ávila Camacho. A number of private universities have opened since the mid-twentieth century.

Education in Mexico is currently regulated by the Secretariat of Public Education (Spanish: Secretaría de Educación Pública) (SEP). Education standards are set by this Ministry at all levels except in "autonomous" universities chartered by the government (e.g.,Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). Accreditation of private schools is accomplished by a mandatory approval and registration with this institution. Religious instruction is prohibited in public schools; however, religious associations are free to maintain private schools, which receive no public funds. Proof of Mexican citizenship is required to attend public schools for free.

In the same fashion as other education systems, education has identifiable stages: Primary School, Junior High School, High School, Higher education, and Postgraduate education.

食品

food

墨西哥菜,是中部美洲印地安菜肴和欧洲菜肴,特别是西班牙菜菜肴的混合,那是16世纪西班牙人征服阿兹特克帝国后添加的新元素。當地的基本食材為玉米、豆类和辣椒等;欧洲人加入了許多食物种类,其中最重要的是驯化动物肉(牛肉、猪肉、鸡肉、绵羊肉、山羊肉)、奶制品(特别是奶酪)和一些蔬菜和香料。

西班牙人最早嘗試在此地推行其原有的烹调方法,但相當困難,后來其食物和烹调方式开始與當地文化混合,特别是在殖民时代。非洲和亚洲菜肴也在此时期影响墨西哥菜,主要是因为新西班牙的非洲奴隶和來自馬尼拉的郵船。

经过几个世纪,当地菜肴也因為地區不同而略有差異,例如奥哈卡、维拉克鲁斯和尤卡坦半岛等。墨西哥菜反映墨西哥的文化、社会结构和传统。這種連結最重要的例子是节日和特殊场合下食用莫雷醬,特别是墨西哥南部和中部地区。由于各种原因,墨西哥饮食在2011年被UNESCO评为人类非物质文化遗产代表名录。

语言

language

The country has the largest Spanish-speaking population in the world with almost a third of all Spanish native speakers.

Mexico is home to a large number of indigenous languages, spoken by some 5.4% of the population – 1.2% of the population are monolingual speakers of an indigenous language. The indigenous languages with most speakers are Nahuatl, spoken by approximately 1.45 million people, Yukatek Maya spoken by some 750,000 people and the Mixtec and Zapotec languages each spoken by more than 400,000 people.

The National Institute of Indigenous Languages INALI recognizes 68 linguistic groups and some 364 different specific varieties of indigenous languages. Since the promulgation of the Law of Indigenous Linguistic Rights in 2003, these languages have had status as national languages, with equal validity with Spanish in all the areas and contexts in which they are spoken.

In addition to the indigenous languages, other minority languages are spoken by immigrant populations, such as the 80,000 German-speaking Mennonites in Mexico, and 5,000 the Chipilo dialect of the Venetian language spoken in Chipilo, Puebla.