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nl 荷兰

是主權國家荷兰王國(荷蘭語:het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden)下的主要構成国,与美洲加勒比海地区的阿鲁巴、库拉索和荷屬圣马丁4个構成国,共同组成主權國家“荷兰王国”。

荷兰的領土可分為歐洲區(European Netherlands)與加勒比區(Caribisch Nederland)兩個部份。歐洲區領土位于欧洲西北部,濒临北海,与德国、比利时接壤。加勒比海區,位於美洲加勒比海地區,包括博奈爾島、聖尤斯特歇斯島和薩巴島三個小島。荷蘭最大的三個城市分別為阿姆斯特丹、鹿特丹與海牙。阿姆斯特丹是宪法确定的正式首都,然而,政府、國王的王宫和大多数使馆都位于海牙。此外,国际法庭也设在海牙。鹿特丹港,位於鹿特丹,為全世界進出量第八的大型港口。

荷蘭是世界上最早擁有議會選舉的國家之一,自1848年起,就確立了議會民主及立憲君主制。荷蘭被認為是一個自由的國度,其社會長久以來就以寬容異己的風氣聞名,其法律允許墮胎、性交易及安樂死等,有限度的放寬娛樂性藥物的合法使用,如大麻。1579年開始,就允許國內居民有宗教自由,領先當時歐洲其他國家。2001年,成為全世界第一個立法承認同性婚姻的國家。

荷蘭是歐盟、G-10、NATO、OECD、WTO的創始成員國之一,也是Benelux關稅同盟的一部份。禁止化學武器組織的總部位於尼德蘭海牙。在這個國家中,擁有五個國際性法庭,包括常设仲裁法院、國際法院、前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭、国际刑事法院、黎巴嫩特別法庭(Special Tribunal for Lebanon)等。前四個法庭都設在海牙,此外,欧洲刑警组织與歐洲檢察官組織的總部也位於此,這使得海牙被稱為是國際司法之都。

荷蘭是以市場經濟為主的經濟體,在經濟自由度指數列出的全球177個國家中,排名第17。在2011年,它是全世界人均收入第10高的國家。在2013年,聯合國世界快樂報告(World Happiness Report)中,將尼德蘭列為全世界第四快樂的國度,顯示了這個國家人民的高品質生活。

有"欧洲花园"和"风车之国"之称的荷兰旅游业较为发达,久负盛名的拦海造陆工程、美丽宜人的郁金香种植区(荷兰有“郁金香王国”之称,郁金香是其国花)、著名的奶酪小城豪达(拥有世界第一家奶酪交易中心)、充满古老气息的大型风车群(荷兰是风车最多的国家)都是旅游观光的好去处。

教育

education

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16, and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18.

All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from (on average) ages 4 to 12. It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative. Based on an aptitude test, the 8th grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education (after completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream):

• The vmbo has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the mbo.

• MBO ("middle-level applied education"). This form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree. With the mbo certification, a student can apply for the hbo.

• The havo has 5 grades and allows for admission to the hbo.

• HBO ("higher professional education"), are universities of professional education (or applied sciences) that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degrees gives access to the university system.

• The vwo (comprising atheneum and gymnasium) has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a (research) university.

• Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one-, or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four-year doctoral degree program. Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university.

食品

food

Originally, the country's cuisine has been shaped by the practices of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising domesticated animals. Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, and contains many dairy products. Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal for breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and (seasonal) vegetables.

The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the labourers whose culture moulded the country. Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan, with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities.

The Southern Dutch cuisine consists of the cuisines of the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Flemish Region in Belgium. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts. It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine.

In early 2014, Oxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of 125 countries.

语言

language

荷兰語(荷蘭語:Nederlands,英语:Dutch),又稱尼德蘭語,属於印欧语系日耳曼语族下的西日耳曼语支,主要通行於荷蘭,在比利時與蘇利南有六成人口使用它,這三個國家共同組成荷蘭語聯盟。是荷蘭、比利時、苏里南和荷属安的列斯群岛的官方語言。在荷兰全境和比利时北部的佛兰德斯地区通用。欧洲约有2300万人以荷兰语为第一语言,還有曾經被荷蘭統治了四個世紀的印度尼西亞也有日常的使用。

荷兰语字母表由26或27個拉丁字母组成,除A至Z外,在Y后面有一个 IJ 。荷兰语有时用 IJ 代替Y。

荷兰语与英语和德语接近,同属西日耳曼语支。荷兰语是由古代低地德语诸方言演变而来,最早的荷兰语文献可追溯到12世纪的佛兰德斯。当代荷兰语是五种方言群体的集合:中西部方言(包括南、北荷兰省,乌德勒支,海尔德兰的大部和西兰的岛屿等地区使用的方言),东北方言(格罗宁根、德伦特、上埃塞尔和海尔德兰东部使用的方言),中南部方言(北博拉班特及其周边的林堡地区,比利时的安特卫普、博拉班特和东弗兰德斯),西南部方言(西弗兰德斯)和东南部方言(荷兰的林堡地区大部和比利时的同名地区)。

东北方言通常被称为萨克森方言,东南方言被称为东部低地法兰科方言,其他的三个群体则被称为西部低地法兰科方言。荷兰的弗里斯兰省的语言通常单独列为一种语言:弗里斯兰语。南非荷兰语是17世紀殖民者所說的荷蘭語的變種,有相當數量的馬來、班圖諸語言的借詞和語法散佈其中,南非白人的祖先名為布爾人,其名稱的由來是來自荷蘭語中boer(農夫)這個單詞。