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nl 荷兰

是主權國家荷兰王國(荷蘭語:het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden)下的主要構成国,与美洲加勒比海地区的阿鲁巴、库拉索和荷屬圣马丁4个構成国,共同组成主權國家“荷兰王国”。

荷兰的領土可分為歐洲區(European Netherlands)與加勒比區(Caribisch Nederland)兩個部份。歐洲區領土位于欧洲西北部,濒临北海,与德国、比利时接壤。加勒比海區,位於美洲加勒比海地區,包括博奈爾島、聖尤斯特歇斯島和薩巴島三個小島。荷蘭最大的三個城市分別為阿姆斯特丹、鹿特丹與海牙。阿姆斯特丹是宪法确定的正式首都,然而,政府、國王的王宫和大多数使馆都位于海牙。此外,国际法庭也设在海牙。鹿特丹港,位於鹿特丹,為全世界進出量第八的大型港口。


荷蘭是歐盟、G-10、NATO、OECD、WTO的創始成員國之一,也是Benelux關稅同盟的一部份。禁止化學武器組織的總部位於尼德蘭海牙。在這個國家中,擁有五個國際性法庭,包括常设仲裁法院、國際法院、前南斯拉夫问题国际刑事法庭、国际刑事法院、黎巴嫩特別法庭(Special Tribunal for Lebanon)等。前四個法庭都設在海牙,此外,欧洲刑警组织與歐洲檢察官組織的總部也位於此,這使得海牙被稱為是國際司法之都。

荷蘭是以市場經濟為主的經濟體,在經濟自由度指數列出的全球177個國家中,排名第17。在2011年,它是全世界人均收入第10高的國家。在2013年,聯合國世界快樂報告(World Happiness Report)中,將尼德蘭列為全世界第四快樂的國度,顯示了這個國家人民的高品質生活。




Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16, and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18.

All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from (on average) ages 4 to 12. It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative. Based on an aptitude test, the 8th grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education (after completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream):

• The vmbo has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the mbo.

• MBO ("middle-level applied education"). This form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree. With the mbo certification, a student can apply for the hbo.

• The havo has 5 grades and allows for admission to the hbo.

• HBO ("higher professional education"), are universities of professional education (or applied sciences) that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. A HBO degrees gives access to the university system.

• The vwo (comprising atheneum and gymnasium) has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a (research) university.

• Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one-, or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four-year doctoral degree program. Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university.



Originally, the country's cuisine has been shaped by the practices of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising domesticated animals. Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, and contains many dairy products. Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal for breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and (seasonal) vegetables.

The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the labourers whose culture moulded the country. Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan, with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities.

The Southern Dutch cuisine consists of the cuisines of the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Flemish Region in Belgium. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts. It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine.

In early 2014, Oxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of 125 countries.




荷兰语字母表由26或27個拉丁字母组成,除A至Z外,在Y后面有一个 IJ 。荷兰语有时用 IJ 代替Y。