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ph 菲律宾

菲律賓共和國,位於東南亞的一個群島國家,處於西太平洋,北隔呂宋海峽與臺湾相望,南隔西里伯斯海與印度尼西亞相望,西隔南中国海與越南相望,東邊則為菲律賓海。作為一個座落於環太平洋地震帶上的熱帶國家,菲律賓常年飽受地震與颱風侵襲,然而其氣候環境也造就了豐富的自然資源與生物多樣性。菲律賓群島由7101個島嶼組成,分為呂宋島、米沙鄢群岛和棉兰老岛三大島群。國內人口約9300萬,加上約1100萬海外菲律賓人,總計人口逾億,位居世界第12名。菲律賓群島的種族與文化為數眾多,史前的尼格利陀人可能是菲律賓最早的居民,隨後南島民族的遷徙陸續帶來了馬來文化、隨著宗教與貿易發展也帶來了印度文化、華夏文化和伊斯蘭文化。

1521年麥哲倫探險隊航海時抵達此地,隨後西班牙人於1565年至1571年年間起陸續佔領菲律賓群島,展開長達300多年的統治。19世紀末期,菲律賓經歷了對西班牙革命、美西戰爭及美菲戰爭之後,成為美國殖民地,第二次世界大戰期間被日本佔領,於第二次世界大戰後獨立。美國在菲律賓留下了英文的主導地位以及對西方文化的認同。獨立至今,菲律賓經歷過數次的經濟快速成長,然而,政局動盪、貪污問題及社會不安成為了阻礙其發展的一大因素,但是近年來菲律賓的經濟大大的改善,並且榮獲亞洲之虎的美稱。

菲國在歷史上一直沒有特有而一致的「菲律賓文化」。主要原因之一乃由於菲律賓是個「七千島國」,各地有太多不同的語言,彼此不一定能充分交流,文化發展和特色都非常局部性;現有80餘種語言在境內使用。自古以來有許多移民遷居於菲律賓,各種東西方文化在此交匯,包括馬來西亞、印度尼西亞、西班牙、荷蘭、中國、墨西哥和美國。

菲律宾北部属海洋性热带季风气候,南部属热带雨林气候,全国各地普遍炎热、潮濕,全年可分為三個季節,分別為3月至5月炎熱乾燥的熱季(tag-init或tag-araw),6月至11月的雨季(tag-ulan)及12月至隔年2月的涼季(tag-lamig)。5月至10月間的西南季風稱之為Habagat,11月至4月乾燥的東北季風則被稱為Amihan。氣溫通常介於21℃至32℃間,但隨著不同季節而有些許差異,1月最涼爽,5月為最熱的月份。

海平面温度约为27℃,热季与凉季温差仅为3℃,各月平均温差则为3℃ - 12℃。全国平均温度最高为33.2 - 39.9℃,最低为16.7 - 20.9℃,最高及最低气温的分布在全国无明显差别。海拔高的地区则温度略低,如海拔约1450米的碧瑶,平均温度比马尼拉低7.5℃ - 9.3℃左右。而菲律賓一些鄰近台湾的地區,以巴丹群島為例:每逢冬季,如果中國大陸有較強的冷鋒南下,一般也會掠過,令巴丹群島甚至呂宋島佬沃,氣溫會降至攝氏20度以下。年降水量2500毫米左右。夏秋季多雨、多台风。

教育

education

The Philippines has a simple literacy rate of 95.6%, with 95.1% for males and 96.1% for females. The Philippines has a functional literacy rate of 86.45%, with 84.2% for males and 88.7% for females in 2008. Literacy in females is greater than in males. Education spending accounts for 16.11% in the proposed 2015 national budget.

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, 607 of which are public and 1,573 private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March. There are a number of foreign schools with study programs. A 6-year elementary and 4-year high school education is mandatory with an additional two years being added in 2013.

Several government agencies are involved with education. The Department of Education covers elementary, secondary, and nonformal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers the post-secondary middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) supervises the college and graduate academic programs and degrees as well as regulate standards in higher education.

In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU). The University of the Philippines is the national university of the Philippines.

食品

food

Philippine cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian origins to become a mixed cuisine with many Hispanic, Chinese, American, and other Asian influences that have been adapted to local ingredients and the Filipino palate to create distinctively Filipino dishes. Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, such as the paellas and cocidos created for fiestas.

Popular dishes include lechón, adobo, sinigang, kare-kare, tapa, crispy pata, pancit, lumpia, and halo-halo. Some common local ingredients used in cooking are calamondins, coconuts, saba (a kind of short wide plantain), mangoes, milkfish, and fish sauce. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.

Unlike many of their Asian counterparts, Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Philippine cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as Kamayan was seen more often in less urbanized areas. However, due to the different Filipino restaurants that introduce Filipino food to other nationalities, Kamayan is fast becoming popular. This recent trend incorporates the use of "Boodle Fight" as coined by the Philippine Army, wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates mixing both rice and Filipino viands all together on top.

语言

language

菲律賓語是菲律賓自1987年菲律賓憲法規定的國語。事實上,菲律賓語是標準化的他加洛語(Tagalog language),馬可斯倒臺後在阿基諾夫人推動之下成為菲律賓的國語。